Maëlle Stricot

C’est avec plaisir que nous accueillons Maëlle Stricot  qui sera stagiaire pendant un mois dans l’équipe. Elle sera notamment chargée d’effectuer des études d’indices de prix.

« Actuellement étudiante au sein du Cycle Pluridisciplinaire d’Etudes Supérieures, cursus mis en place par le pôle Paris Sciences et Lettres, et m’apprêtant à entrer en troisième année de licence d’économie à l’Université Paris-Dauphine, j’ai intégré le projet TOFLIT18 le 26 juin 2017 dans le cadre d’un stage d’une durée d’un mois.

Avant le début de ce stage, j’ai assisté aux deux jours du colloque portant sur « Turgot : mondialisation, sciences et économie au siècle des Lumières », donné sur le site des Archives Nationales à Pierrefitte, où j’ai pu rencontrer de nombreux chercheurs s’intéressant à l’économiste Turgot et à cette époque. Cette expérience a été très enrichissante, car en plus de pouvoir rencontrer plusieurs chercheurs prestigieux en histoire et en économie, cela m’a aussi permis de voir ce qui constituait l’une des facettes du métier de chercheur.

Ma participation au projet consiste à élaborer une analyse des indices de prix des différentes marchandises échangées au cours du 18ème siècle en m’appuyant sur la base de données existante. Ce travail est intéressant car il va me permettre d’avoir plus de connaissances sur le commerce et l’économie française de l’époque.

Ce stage représente pour moi une opportunité de découvrir en profondeur le monde de la recherche et de voir en quoi consiste exactement le travail de chercheur. Les missions dont je suis en charge sont aussi une occasion d’en apprendre davantage en économie et en statistiques, ce qui me sera sûrement très utile pour mes prochaines années d’études. Je pense que ce stage peut également me permettre d’affiner mon projet professionnel, en découvrant le monde de la recherche et en voyant s’il me correspond. »

 

Anthony Rebours

We are happy to welcome Anthony Rebours in the team ! He will do retranscriptions.

After graduating a Master Degree in history of economic thought at University Paris 8/Paris 1 La Sorbonne, Anthony is currently involved in research for his Phd thesis on the theme of the development of Krugman’s geographical economics. He also began to teach recent history of economic thought for undergraduate students at University of Tours François-Rabelais this year. As the studies in history of economic thought, including recent history, implies the use of various methodological approaches, Anthony is particularly interested in using quantitative data and archival works in his own researches.

REBOURS Anthony CV

 

 

Matthias Loise new tasks

After a 4 months internship for the TOFLIT18 project (which ended in March 2017), G. Daudin called Matthias back to work again with him for this project. He is joining again the TOFLIT team from May 22nd to August 4th.

Actually, he is working on some transcripts checking (from Nantes and Rennes).

After that, he will do some merchandise orthographic normalization and some tasks in order to update the merchandises index.

He will also do the same work that he has done during his internship on aberrant values and aberrant prices from the new sources.

In parallel, he will participate to the archiving of the TOFLIT18 project in collaboration with SciencesPo Paris.

June 1st 2017 Toflit meeting

Attending : Guillaume Daudin, Béatrice Dedinger, Pierre Gervais, Paul Girard, Matthias Loise, Tristan Majou

Guillaume Plique

Guillaume was supposed to start working again for us on June 12th. An unexpected new procedure at the ANR means we need the greenlight of a committee that meets on June 16th.
His status at SciencesPo might change. If he gets a CDI, we will not be able to pay him anymore.

In his last batch of work, he did many «invisible things» with the datascape. He would like to move to more analytic tasks. We plan having him work on a research paper with Pierre Gervais.
We will ask Robin to give him a hand for the design/development.
On the other hand, we decide that making the datascape easier to use and more accessible cannot be the priority for the time being.

His new work schedule will be :
– From June 26th to July 9th (2 weeks) to finish the three trello cards that were initially planned in April.
– From August 28th to September 22nd : integrate Robin’s suggestions, the documentation, make the datascape public and maybe add new features. This will have to start with a brainstorming session to decide exactly what we want.

This will leave us with one week of salary : we must think about what we should do with it.

Matthias Loise and Florence Perret

We are very happy to have them back ! They will check the retranscriptions (both in a paleographic and automatic way), complete the term database, take pictures of the few remaining archives, etc.

Ricardo

A great part of the meeting is devoted to Ricardo issues

Next meeting

June 28th at 14.00 at the Medialab

April 20th 2017 Toflit meeting

April 20th 2017 Toflit meeting

Attending : Loïc Charles, Guillaume Daudin, Paul Girard, Guillaume Plique, Elisa Tirindelli

1. Long-term conservation of the data
At the begining of the project, Adonis had offered to insure the long-term conservation of the data for 20 000 €. We decide to recontact them, or their successor organisation.

After a discussion with the CINES, it appears that everything will have to go through the Bibliothèque de SciencesPo.

The Bibliothèque de SciencesPo seems not to believe that the long-term storage of the data is warranted. They advise us to document it well and do multiple non-exclusive self-made saving dumps.

Loïc is going to contact David Schon on this subject as his project might be interested in helping us.

2. Budget
We discuss about the way to use the remaining Dauphine budget.

We decide to use it for the October meeting, additional retranscriptions (of the Levant trade and transport costs in the Montyon archives), IT material, and hiring of research assistants (not interns) to check the retranscriptions (both in a paleographic and automatic way), complete the term database, take pictures of the few remaining archives, etc.

3. We discuss how to check the retranscriptions in an efficient way.
It is difficult to do without a second, non-automatic look before an algorithmic one.
4. Next meeting
On June 1st, 9.30 at the medialab.

March 8th 2017 Toflit meeting

 

Attending : Loïc Charles, Guillaume Daudin, Béatrice Dedinger, Paul Girard, Silvia Marzagalli, Guillaume Plique
1. Workshop Ricardo
We discuss the organisation of the Ricardo workshop in May. Guillaume and Paul suggest the use of gosoapbox and lots of post-its.
2. Simplification of goods / Integration of new data
We did not make progress

3. Price mistakes
Matthias has finished correcting price mistakes

4. Guillaume Plique planning
We confirm we have 16 weeks of funding. 2 have been used up. There are 2.5 weeks of holidays.
Next weeks :
April 10th, 17th and 24th. (3 weeks)
May 1st (1 week)
From Wednesday June 28th to Thursday July 13th (3.5 weeks)
Monday Septembre 4th to Friday September 29th (4 weeks)

Paul and Loïc discuss the organization of the fund transfer.

5. Octobre 2017 conference
We finalize the call for papers

Next meeting : April 20th at 9.30 at the Medialab meeting room 13, rue de l’Université in Sciences Po.

Call for papers : «International trade and the economy, 1600-1870» Paris (Université Paris-Dauphine), October 19th-20th 2017

Call for papers : «International trade and the economy, 1600-1870»

Paris (Université Paris-Dauphine), October 19th-20th 2017
ANR TOFLIT18, https://toflit18.hypotheses.org

External trade flows are the single macroeconomic data that early modern states have collected with the most care. The first attempts at measuring foreign trade can be dated from the early seventeenth century. Later on, several Italian states, such as the Republics of Genoa and Venice, began to systematically collect customs data to create balances of trade. England and Ireland followed and, from 1696 on, they collected a continuous series of data flows and released a yearly evaluation of the English balance of trade. Several of the continental states, such as France, followed suit, and by the end of the eighteenth-century most of them produced more or less comprehensive balances of trade. A number of recent scientific events and publications have discussed the availability of these trade data (two conferences in Lille in 2011 and in Paris in 2014)[1]. Last year, we organized a conference in Paris that explored the issue of classifying trade data in order to make them useful for economic analysis (Paris 2016). Our aim in this new conference is to take stock of these methodological and data-related efforts to provide a fresh view of the contribution of international trade to the growth and development of national economies before and at the time of the first Industrial Revolution.

Below are some suggestions for possible contributions:
– The ongoing debate among economists and historians shows there is no agreement on the direct causes as to why Britain was the first industrial nation and why other countries lagged behind. However, it must be noted that in recent years economic historians coming from different methodological backgrounds put renewed emphasis on the importance of international trade for the Industrial Revolution (Robert Allen, Maxine Berg, Kenneth Pomeranz among others). Put in a larger perspective, the impact of late twentieth-century globalization on development has forced us to rethink the relationship of international trade and industrialization.
– A complementary perspective is the analysis of international trade data for understanding the workings and transformations of early modern European economies. Goods that were traded and circulated at the international level occupied a special place. External trade provided European consumers with new goods (sugar, coffee, tea, Asian manufactures, etc.) and producers with new inputs (indigo, cotton, etc.). At the same time, it allowed regional specialization both in agricultural and industrial production by connecting these overseas markets to European regions that furnished non-local supplies such as meat, textiles, grains or wine. Actually, as a whole, data on external trade give fundamental insights into the material culture of Early Modern Europe and its transformations in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
– We will also welcome quantitative studies of policy changes and their effects such as, in the French case, the liberalization of the grain trade in 1774 under Turgot, the Eden trade treaty of 1786 and other trade agreements of the 1780s, the first unified tariff of 1791 that did away will most prohibitions and reduced industrial tariffs to 5-15%, the movement toward autarky after 1793, including the Continental System and the short free-trade period of 1814-1816. Comparable changes took place in most European economies.

This conference is financed by the TOFLIT18 project (http://toflit18.hypotheses.org/) funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR). It will take place on the 19th and the 20th of October in Paris in Dauphine. Limited funds are available for travel and accommodation of presenters and discussants; priority will be given to early-career researchers and researchers coming from emerging countries.

If you to participate, send 500-word abstracts including affiliation details before June 1st 2017 to either guillaume.daudin@dauphine.fr or Charles@ined.fr
If you want to apply for funding, please provide as well a preliminary budget and a one page CV.

Scientific Committee
Loïc Charles, Paul Cheney, Anne Conchon, Guillaume Daudin, Paul Girard, Ragnhild Hutchison, Aidan Kane, Lionel Kesztenbaum, Silvia Marzagalli, Kevin O’Rourke, Werner Scheltjens, Jan Willem Veluwenkamp

Organizing Committee
Loïc Charles and Guillaume Daudin
[1] Loïc Charles et Guillaume Daudin, éd., « Eighteenth Century International Trade Statistics: Sources and Methods », Revue de l’OFCE (Special Issue), no 140 (2015): 7‑377.

February 3rd 2017 meeting

Attending : Loïc Charles, Guillaume Daudin, Matthias Loise, Florence Perret, Guillaume Plique

1. Paul Girard & Sciences Po
Paul is discussing his status with SciencesPo.

2. Guillaume Plique’s planning
We have six confirmed weeks of work :
February 6th and 13th (2)
April 10th, 17th and 24th (3)
May 1st (1)
We have funded 16 weeks of work. We need to plan for the other 10 weeks ? 4 weeks in May, 4 weeks in June and 2 in July seems a bit extreme.

3. Simplification of goods
The works has been completed. Pierre Gervais is going to proofread Florence’s work on the datascape.
Pierre suggested to go further into the simplification, gathering all kinds of ‘agaric’ for instance. The group decides to stick with the original idea and not loose any information at the simplification stage.
During further discussion, it is decided that Pierre will not spend three weeks making sure that all simplification rules have been perfectly applied.

4. Looking for mistakes in the data
Matthias Loise has made a linear regression on the prices using product names, metric measurements unite and year. This way, he could forecast the prices and treat those which are too different from their predicted values. The rate of mistakes is still high. With the residual between 2,5 et 3, there is 60% of « true wrong prices », 20% of « actually right prices » and 20% of doubtful cases. The share of true wrong prices is higher in local data (70%) than in the national data (55%).
As for now he could only work on metric measurements but it could be interesting to work on other units although it’s going to be hard to make comparisons (as those units are not standardized especially those emanating from the colonies).

5. Data: Assistance Publique & Marseille
Loïc Charles will look for new data mentioned to us by François Velde at the Assistance Publique (fond Montyon) during the following week. For now, he has been working on Marseille’s sources.
He basically found many small things, but no missing year.
– Imports per product in Levant’s échelles from 1725 to the mid 1770s (and some exports)
– Some colonial import and export trade statistics giving the destinations.
– Some documents coming from the beginning of the second bureau
– A list of freight costs at the bilateral port level

4. European funding
Loïc Charles met with Lucyna Derkacz/Gomez-Echeverri in charge of European projects at Paris 8. She was enthusiastic about Toflit18 and summed up the criteria to apply for a European funding. It appears that two programs could be interesting for Toflit:
– SSHS program. This depends of the work program and whether we fit in what they are interested.
– FET future & FET exchange programs (http://www.horizon2020.gouv.fr/cid110740/appel-2017-fet-open-coordination-and-support-actions-csa.html)
Those are relatively low budget programs which were created to finance interdisciplinary projects including new technologies and private companies, criteria which matches with Toflit. New adjudications are going to be made for 2017-2018.
Loïc Charles thinks that, first, we could duplicate the way we created the database to obtain similar practices, and then build a translation’s procedure and a multilateral database. In this way, we would be able to map not only one country but many simultaneous European perspectives. We could also match our data with maritime data (Sound Toll Registers http://www.soundtoll.nl/index.php/en/over-het-project/str-online & Navigocorpus http://navigocorpus.org/) but it would be a lot of work.
Guillaume’s contacts in Dauphine had been more interested in the Infrastructure program.
Guillaume and Loïc decide to each write a 1-paragraph defense of each option and send it around to the list to see who is interested in what.
Another option would be to create an ANR with European partners.

5. We discuss the scientific committee of the 2017 conference

January 5th 2017 meeting

Thank you to Florence for the first version of this report!

 

Attending : Loïc Charles, Guillaume Daudin, Béatrice Dedinger, Pierre Gervais, Paul Girard, Matthias Loise, Florence Perret, Guillaume Plique
1. Planning Guillaume Plique
He is one month late of the preceeding project. And starting in February he is starting on Wasmer’s project (with a workshop at the end of March).
In total we have nearly 4 month (10 700 € from SciencesPo and 13 000 € from INED) Planning:
– First 2 weeks of February
– One or two weeks in March
And the rest ?

2. Paul Girard & SciencesPo

3. Looking for mistakes in the data
Matthias Loïs has been looking for mistakes in the data
a. By looking at trade flows over 25 million l.t. A number of typos.
b. By comparing retranscribed trade flows and predicted (by a repeated sales model) trade flows. Only national trade for the time being. A lot of too-small trade flows that are not very interesting to correct.
c. Will be looking at the difference between retranscribed prices and predicted prices (by a repeated sales model). Many mistakes in Marseille
It is often because they forget to divide by 100 or they mix « sous » and « livres ».

4. Data
Marseilles’s data are a pain to check and integrate in the database. Loïc is doing it on his own and is spending a lot of time on each document.

This is blocking the integration of Dardel’s Rouen.

We decide to put Moyons at the Assistance Publique on the top of the pile.

5. Simplification of goods and measure units
Matthias has treated the measure units with three successive files.
The work on Merchandise Simplification has started again thanks to Florence. Pierre is going to participate and aims at finishing at the end of February or March.

6. 2017 Conference
Pierre makes two proposals.
– Use Chaurand and Gradis and check if their data is compatible with ours
– Study the link between the complexity of classifications and specialization between ports. Start with wine ?

7. Next meetings
03/02-9:30 : medialab
08/03-9:30 : medialab
21/04-9:30 : medialab
01/06-9:30 : medialab

December 9th 2016 meeting

December 9th 2016 meeting

Attending : Sid Ahmed Benabderrahmane, Julien Brault, Loïc Charles, Bruno Chavez, Guillaume Daudin, Ivan Ledezma, Matthias Loise, Nada Mimouni, Florence Perret, Guillaume Plique, Timothy Yeung
Five members of the group « Governance Analytics » ((https://www.governanceanalytics.org/) were attending to discuss possible collaboration
. Post-doc en informatique. Governance analytics. Technologie du web sémantique pour présenter les textes juridiques français. / Bruno Chavez sur Governance Analytics. Immergé à Dauphine, mettre en commun en informatique, traitement des statistiques et économétrie pour appuyer des recherches originales pour PSL. Projet porté deux prof à Dauphine. / Julien Pro post-doc d’économie en histoire analytique / Fiio / Timoty économiste / Ledezma prof à Dijon économiste du commerce / Guillaume Plique.

# Datascape
Paul told us that he solved the bug linked to multiple-criteria request in the « Term Network». It has not been put in production yet.

# Guillaume Plique
Guillaume will be able to work with us between two and three months starting mid-January.
He will probably work part-time, meaning he will be with us till at least mid-May and maybe till mid-July.
# WEHC 2018
The session including hands-on utilisation of the datascape has been rejected. Maybe we will organise a one without the hands-on session, but including Alain Bresson and David Schloen.
We were encouraged to re-submit the other session. We have to re-write the introduction
Re-rédiger l’autre. Réécrire le blurp. Et qui mettre dedans exactement.
## Governance analytics
We have a long discussion about possible collaboration between the Governance Analytics team and TOFLIT18.

Toflit18 has a pressing need for design and development capacities. We have the skill for the data analysis.

It has been very interesting to learn about all the things that are done by Governance Analytics. It is a bit more difficult to see the possible complementarities.

We discuss the ontology of goods following Nada Mimouni’s work. That would be especially useful if we were to work on a multilingual database.

We also discuss temporal graphs with Sid Ahmed Benabderrahmane. This is interesting for some other projects of the Medialab.

Julien Brault is also working on 18th century economic history, as he is looking at the activities of the Conseil du Commerce. The thematic link with Toflit18 is easy to make.

The call for project will take place every six months.

## Future fundings
The only thing we really need future funding for is hosting and archiving.

An ERC funding seems out of reach. Maybe an «infrastructure» project (European Research Infrastructures ?
http://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/data/ref/h2020/wp/2016_2017/main/h2020-wp1617-infrastructures_en.pdf) ? Or a cooperative ANR project ?

## 2017 Conference
We will have the final two-day conference of the project next Fall (October ? November ?). Our plan is to organise a scientific committee and an open call with the theme «International trade and the economy, 1600-1870».
It will be followed by a half day closed workshop to discuss further developments.

The conference will be focused on
1. The use of international trade statistics to study economies for which few primary economic series are available.
2. The study of early international trade mechanisms

We look forward to have interpretative papers using Toflit18 data presented by the team. As the database is now in a very advanced stage (but not complete), we will endeavour to help those who have an idea for a paper and want to explore its feasibility by organising a workshop in late winter or early spring to discuss their ideas and provide guidance in the use of the database.

Ivan, Guillaume and Loïc discuss what they can do at this occasion.
This is your last occasion to benefit from the collective means (and minds) of the project. We sincerely hope that you will welcome this research opportunity.

November 2nd 2016 meeting

Meeting Toflit18 – 11/02/2016

Attending : Loïc Charles, Guillaume Daudin, Béatrice Dedinger, Paul Girard, Florence Perret

1- Feedback on Chicago’s workshop

The workshop went really well, the project made a very positive impression on the audience.

Paul Girard really appreciated his discussion with Professor James Evans, from the Computational Social Science workshop. He latter contacted him about methodological issues such as the measurements of graph’s spatialization’s quality.

Meeting Yves Gingras and John Padgett was a boon to all of us.

Loïc Charles met with David Schloen from the Ochre meta-project (http://ochre.uchicago.edu), which enables the creation of query software with data emanating from ancient texts, tablets and various goods. In order to question the database more efficiently, and also due to the fact that ancient languages do not isolate each words, each letter is an observation in the database. David Schloen thought that Toflit18 and Ochre have similar methodological principles as they were both created in order to fit many types of research and create a space where researchers could compare their data and results with each others with as much flexibility as possible.

David Schloen also work with Alain Bresson, who focuses on the circulation of currencies throughout the Ancient Greek world. They will organize together a conference at the Paris branch of the University of Chicago in 2018. They want to do two conferences back to back : one on ancient history and another one, methodological, on the use of innovative databases in history. The latter one will include projects that deal with data acquisition integration, analysis, publication and archiving. He offered to give a spot to TOFLIT18 in that conference (paying all costs), along with other pre-statistic era data-related projects (Ochre, Alain Bresson’s, John Padgett’s and Toflit18).

2- Boston

Paul Girard also went to Boston and met with members of the MIT medialab and the Harvard metalab at Berckman Center. He insisted on the similarity of their methodological issues with those of Toflit18. He remarked on the lack of integration of inputs from social scientists at the MIT medialab.

3- Leipzig

Guillaume Daudin presented the STRO conference in Leipzig and discussed the depth of collaboration between historians and IT researchers.

4- DH 2017

We missed the deadline. We discuss future papers with Paul: one for (hopefully) Digital Humanities Quarterly presenting the data transforming chain and one on the national and local effect of the loss of Canada for a economic history journal.

Related other papers in DHQ are :

http://www.digitalhumanities.org/dhq/vol/8/4/000196/000196.html http://www.digitalhumanities.org/dhq/vol/10/4/000269/000269.html

http://www.digitalhumanities.org/dhq/vol/8/4/000187/000187.html

5- The next meeting is on december 9th, 9:15am at the Médialab.

Matthias Loise

Nous accueillons avec plaisir Matthias Loise qui sera stagiaire quatre mois dans l’équipe. Il commencera par faire des retranscriptions (mais comme nous arrivons au bout de celle-ci, sans doute n’y passera-t-il pas quatre mois)

« Actuellement en césure après un Master 1 Affaires Internationales et Développement majeure économie, c’est avec enthousiasme que je rejoins l’équipe TOFLIT18 pour quelques mois. Préparant un Master 2 en Economie Internationale, mais n’ayant pour le moment pas de projet professionnel précis, ce stage représente une opportunité de découvrir le monde de la recherche et d’ainsi me permettre de voir si celui-ci me correspond. De plus, mon cursus universitaire ayant beaucoup été tourné vers l’économie internationale, participer à l’étude qu’effectue l’équipe TOFLIT18 se mêle parfaitement à mon parcours et devrait selon toute vraisemblance s’avérer être une expérience très intéressante et très enrichissante.»

curriculum-vitae

Transformations of the french economy through the lens of international trade, 1716-1821