Partners complementarity

Exploiting historical data to advance our knowledge in economy and history is obviously an inter-disciplinary task. All three partners are centres of research excellence and bring to the project economic historians used to working with both economists and historians. In addition, Paris-Dauphine brings its expertise in economics, the INED its knowledge of the treatment of large manuscript datasources and Sciences-Po its knowledge of dealing with databases through the Medialab.


The Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques (FNSP/Sciences Po) is a fully-fledged, self-governing, research university specialised in the social-economic sciences and the humanities which enrols some 9,600 students per year. Sciences Po is the leading research university in the social sciences in France with 50 full-time professors, 190 researchers, 80 foreign professors invited each year, nine research centres, five of which are closely linked to the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). Today, 15 of the research teams of Sciences Po have been involved in more than 35 European projects and 18 ANR projects. The Science Po team will gather researchers working at the médialab, the Center for History at Sciences Po.

Established in 2009 thanks to the support of the Île-de-France region, the médialab of Sciences Po is a laboratory of digital resources centred on all the new technologies of information and communication. The médialab has been created to explore how data and resources provided by information and communications technologies can be harnessed for the benefit of social sciences. The médialab is a site dedicated to digital research. It is a team of specialists bringing together social scientists, engineers and designers. It is a high-tech facility, a hub for vanguard research, a scientific toolkit at the disposal of the Sciences Po academic community and a platform for launching national and international collaborations.

The Center for History at Sciences Po (EA 113) is the contemporary history research laboratory of the Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques. The CHSP has existed since late 2004. Its research activities are in line with the research activities of the Center for Twentieth-Century European History, founded in 1984. It brings together 20 French and international permanent researchers and around 50 associate researchers, all renowned in political, cultural and economic history. The CHSP has a natural interest in the project as one of its main fields of research is international history, including international trade history, and the working on archives is a long tradition of the Center.


Founded in 1945, the role of the Institut national d’études démographiques (INED) is to “study demographic problems in all their aspects. To this aim, the Institute will collect the relevant documentation, conduct surveys, carry out experiments and follow experiments conducted abroad.” In 1986, INED became a public scientific and technological establishment (EPST). This status – identical to that of CNRS, INSERM and INRA – is a guarantee of scientific independence. Though demography is central to INED, the scope of its research covers very diverse fields of expertise, including sociology, economics, geography, history, political science, public health and statistics.
Since 1945, INED has played a pioneering role in developing household surveys as an instrument of sociological and demographic knowledge. For this purpose, INED has built up a specialized “Surveys department” which oversees data collection. The missions of the “Surveys department” have expanded and broadened in scope over recent years. Offering expert know-how at all stages of the data collection process, its members are closely involved in many large-scale projects both in France and abroad.
The research unit 11 “Histoire et populations” studies the history the development of demographic and economic knowledge from the 17th century up to the present day. It also develops and manages archives of past statistical surveys (Henry survey, TRA survey) and analyses the data they contain with a view to shedding light on past demographic trends.
The know-how of the “Surveys department” in data collection and that of Unit 11 in the developing and managing of past statistical survey is a major asset for TOFLIT18 and will guaranty that the hired staff who will oversee the digitizing and the encoding of the data will benefit from a context in which invaluable experience and expertise in these fields will be at hand.

Université Paris-Dauphine

Since its foundation in 1968, Université Paris-Dauphine has been committed to developing and furthering research in the organization and decision sciences. Its goal has always been to play a significant International role in furthering knowledge and understanding in the management and organization sciences, while contributing to our communities and promoting France as a center for scientific and academic excellence. Today, Dauphine is recognized as one of Europe’s leading research institutions in its field. In keeping with its goals and to strengthen our commitment to excellence, Dauphine co-founded PSL-Paris Sciences et Lettres, recognized in July 2011 as one of the 3 premier French initiatives for excellence.

L’UMR 225 DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) includes the group “Développement et Mondialisation” from LEDa (Laboratoire d’Economie de Dauphine) and researchers from the IRD (Département Sociétés). It includes 11 researchers from IRD and 19 from Paris-Dauphine, around 10 associate researchers and around 40 PhD students. They research in numerous fields of development economics and international economics. Some of them are specifically interested in economic history, which is one the research axis of the lab for the period 2014-2018 (HECO). In addition to Guillaume Daudin, Philippe Chalmin, Denis Cogneau, Emmanuelle Lavallée and Sandrine Mesplé-Somps part of this axis.

Pierrick Pourchasse (Dauphine team)

Personal history

Since Sept. 2004, Assistant Professor. University of Brest (UBO). History Department

Coordinator of “Navigocorpus” (with Silvia Marzagalli and Jean-Pierre Dedieu), a project which aims to create and put to public disposal an important set of data on merchant shipping between 1650 and 1850

Main publications

Pourchasse (Pierrick), Dedieu (Jean-Pierre) et Marzagalli (Silvia), « Navigocorpus at Work: a Brief overview of a Potential of a Database », International Journal of Maritime History, vol. XXIV, n° 1, juin 2012, pp. 331-359.

Pourchasse (Pierrick) et Andersen (Dan H.), « La navigation des flottes de l’Europe du Nord vers la Méditerranée (XVIIe-XVIIIe siècles) », Revue d’Histoire Maritime, 13, 2011, p.21-44.

Beaurepaire (Pierre-Yves) et Pourchasse (Pierrick) (dir.), Les circulations internationales en Europe années 1680-années 1780, Rennes, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2010.

Pourchasse (Pierrick), « The “Information Problem” for French trade in the Northern Markets of the Eighteenth Century », in Ojala (Jari) & Müller (Leos), Information Flows. New approaches in the Historical Study of Business Information, SKS, Helsinki, 2007, p. 230-254

Pourchasse (Pierrick), Le commerce du Nord. La France et le commerce de l’Europe septentrionale au XVIIIe siècle, Rennes, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2006

Ivan Ledezma (Dauphine team)

Personal history

Current position: Since Sept. 2009, Associate Professor (Maître de Conférences). University of Paris-Dauphine, France.

Previous position: Sept. 2007 – Aug. 2009, Lecturer & Research Fellow (Attaché Temporaire d’Enseignement et de Recherche), Université Paris 1 Panthéon – Sorbonne.


Main Publications

Ledezma I. (2013), “Defensive Strategies in the Quality Ladders”. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control. Vol. 37, N° 1, pp. 176–194.

Amable B., L. Demmou and I. Ledezma (2013), “L’Impact de la Réglementation sur l’Innovation : une Analyse des Performances Selon la Proximité à la Frontière Technologique”. Economie et Prévision. A paraître, N°197-198, février 2012.

Amable B., L. Demmou and I. Ledezma (2010), “Product Market Regulation, Innovation and Distance to Frontier”, Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 19, N° 1, pp. 117-159.

Bas M. and I. Ledezma (2010), “Trade Integration and Within-Plant Productivity Evolution in Chile”, Review of World Economics/Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv , Vol. 146, N°1, pp. 113-146.

Ledezma I. (2009), “Intensité de R&D et Règlementation de Marché”, Revue Economique, Vol. 60, N° 3, pp. 797-806.



PhD in Economics. University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne & Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques. Defended on june 2008, Mention très honorable avec félicitations du jury, propositions pour prix de thèse et subvention pour publication.

MSc in “Institutional Economics” (EHESS, France). Defended on September 2004, Mention Bien.

MSc in “Applied Economics” (Université Paris XII, France). Defended on June 2003, Mention Bien.

Pierre Gervais (Dauphine team)

Personal history

Maître de conférences en histoire contemporaine, UMR 8533 Institutions et dynamiques historiques de l’économie, Université Paris VIII

HDR (2012)

Main publications

Crédit et filières marchandes au XVIIIe siècle”, Annales. Histoire, Sciences sociales, vol. 67 n° 4, décembre 2012, p. 1011-1048.

Article “Merchants”, Oxford Bibliographies Online, 2012, en ligne

A merchant ot a French Atlantic? Eighteenth-century account books as narratives of a transnational merchant political economy”, French History, March 2011, vol. 25 n°1, pp. 28-47

A game of claims and expectations : credit, failure, and personal relationships across the Atlantic”, Common-Place, vol. 10 no. 3, Avril 2010, en ligne

Neither Imperial, nor Atlantic : A Merchant’s Eye View of International Trade in the 18th Century”, History of European Ideas, vol. 34 n°4, décembre 2008, pp. 465-473

Béatrice Dedinger (SciencesPo coordinator)

Personal history

Researcher at the Centre d’histoire de Sciences Po, FNSP/Sciences Po Paris.

Main publications

« L’Allemagne et la France dans la mondialisation commerciale aux XIXe et XXe siècles », in J.-F. Eck, D. Hüser, eds., Deutschland und Frankreich in der Globalisierung im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert/L’Allemagne et la France dans la mondialisation aux XIXe et XXe siècles, Steiner Verlag, 2012, pp. 33-52.


« Le problème des statistiques allemandes du commerce extérieur avant 1871 », Histoire@Politique. Politique, culture, société, n° 17, mai-août 2012,

« The Franco-German trade puzzle: an analysis of the economic consequences of the Franco-Prussian war », Economic History Review, 65, 3, 2012: pp. 1029-1054.

« Les orientations géographiques du commerce extérieur allemand depuis la fin du XIXe siècle : analyse d’un siècle de transformations », Revue d’Allemagne et des pays de langue allemande, 39(2), avril-juin 2007 : pp. 253-267.

« Le protectionnisme est-il la clef du succès commercial allemand à la fin du XIXe siècle ? », Revue d’Allemagne et des pays de langue allemande, 40(1), 2008 : pp.75-99.

« From virtual free-trade to virtual protectionism. Did protectionism have any part in Germany’s rise to commercial power? 1850-1913 » in J-P. Dormois, P. Lains, eds. – Classical Trade Protectionism, 1815-1914, Routledge, 2006: pp. 219-241.

«The Geographical Structure of Trade in Germany since the Late Nineteenth Century», The Journal of European Economic History, 3, 2006: pp. 551-583.

Loïc Charles (INED Coordinator)

Personal history

Since Sept. 2008, Full Professor. University of Reims. Economic department.

Since January 2005, fellow researcher at INED (French National Institute for Demographic Studies) and researcher at EconomiX (University of Paris Ouest and CNRS/UMR 7235).

Main publications (total number of publications in refereed international journals: 15)

The Colonial Machine Dismantled: Knowledge and Empire in the French Atlantic”, with Paul Cheney (University of Chicago), Past and Present, forthcoming 2012.

From Versailles to Paris: the Creative Communities of the Physiocratic Movement”, with Ch. Théré (Ined), History of Political Economy, 43: 1 (Spring 2011), p. 25-58.

Le cercle de Vincent de Gournay : savoirs économiques et pratiques administratives au milieu du XVIIIe siècle ed. with Ch. Théré et Fr. Lefebvre (Ined), Paris, Ined, 2011.

La collecte du chiffre au xviiie siècle : Le Bureau de la Balance du Commerce et la production des données sur le commerce extérieur de la France», avec Guillaume Daudin, Revue d’Histoire Moderne et Contemporaine, vol. 58, n°1, p. 128-155, 2011.

Le prix comme vecteur d’information dans la pensée économique française dans la deuxième moitié du XVIIIe siècle”, in Dominique Margairaz and Philippe Minard dir., L’information économique. XVIe-XIXe siècle, Comité pour l’histoire économique et financière de la France, 2008, p. 71-91.


2010 European Society for the History of Economic Thought’s Young Scholar of the Year.

2004 History of Economics Society’s Best Article Award.

1996 Grant Aguirre-Basualdo, Chancellerie des Université de Paris.


Guillaume Daudin (project coordinator)

Guillaume Daudin is an active researcher who has published in the top-field journal in Economic History and in good journals in Economics and History. This guarantees his commitment to quality scientific output.

He has shown his commitment to pluri-disciplinary research. Despite being a professor in Economics, he has a long history of exchanging with historians (e.g. in the seminar headed at various times by Dominique Margairaz, Philippe Minard and Pierre Gervais or in the MARPROF project). He has written papers in history (e.g. Charles and Daudin 2011 or Guillaume Daudin 2010), international trade economics (e.g. Guillaume Daudin, Rifflart, and Schweisguth 2011). This experience gives him the tools to exchange with both communities. He will ensure both that the historians validate data that are useful to economists and that the economists work keeping in mind the historical limitation of the data.

More specifically, he has often worked with large trade databases, historical or not. With Elizaveta Archanskaïa, he has worked with product specific (4-digit) UN trade data from 1962 to now (Archanskaïa and Daudin 2012). He also worked for a while alongside Marc Flandreau and Béatrice Dedinger on the RICardo database of world trade from the 1830s to nowadays and on MARPROF. Along with Loïc Charles, he has initiated in 2010 a researcher network implicating many of the scholars who are now involved in the ANR (18th century trade network: ( This network has given him the opportunity to start a fruitful collaboration and to make the personal acquaintance of moste of the researchers involved in this project.

His collaboration with Loïc Charles on the collection of French data has started in 2009 and forms the backbone of this project. Even though he will be the formal coordinator of the project, they will continue working together to ensure its success.


Guillaume Daudin – 39 year old

Personal history

Since 2012 Université Paris-Dauphine, LEDa/DIAL : Full Professor in Economics

Since 2008 Sciences-Po, Centre de Recherche en Économie (OFCE) : Associate Researcher

2008-2012 Université Lille-I, EQUIPPE: Full Professor in Economics

Main publications (total number of publications in refereed international journals: 14)

«Who produce for Whom in the World Economy?», with Christine Rifflart and Danièle Schweisguth, Canadian Journal of Economics, forthcoming 2011

La collecte du chiffre au xviiie siècle : Le Bureau de la Balance du Commerce et la production des données sur le commerce extérieur de la France», avec Loïc Charles, Revue d’Histoire Moderne et Contemporaine, vol. 58, n°1, p. 128-155, 2011.

«Quantitative methods and Economic History», in Dove va la storia economica? Metodi e prospettive. Secc. XIII-XVIII. • Where is Economic History going? Methods and Prospects from the 13th to the 18th Centuries. (Où va l’Histoire Économique? Méthodes et perspectives XIIIe-XVIIIe siécles), Acts of the XLII study week Settimana Datini 2011

Domestic Trade and Market Size in Late 18th century France”, Journal of Economic History vol. 63, n°3 , 2010

«Ordre et désordres dans l’échange international : une revue de littérature», with Jean-Luc Gaffard et Francesco Saraceno, Revue de l’OFCE: Observations et diagnostics économiques, Janvier, n°100, 2007


1996-2001 Université Paris-I / London School of Economics PhD in economics


2003 Finalist at the thesis prize of the European Historical Economics Society

2001 Thesis prize of the Association Française de Science Économique

What is TOFLIT18 ?

The project “Transformations of the French Economy through the Lens of International Trade, 1716-1821” (TOFLIT18) aims at improving our knowledge of the French economy during the period that laid the economic ground for the entry of France and Europe in the modern industrial era. The French administrative trade statistics are the most comprehensive and coherent source of quantitative information available for the French economy at that time. These data were produced locally and aggregated at the national level by the Bureau de la Balance du Commerce from 1716 on (Charles and Daudin 2011). Despite several administrative reshufflings, the techniques of gathering and presenting the statistics on French foreign trade went almost unchanged up to the 1820s: they provided the total value, and sometimes the unit values, of merchandise and partner-specific trade flows; we have already photographed an almost complete series of yearly statistics.

These documents are unique as they provide quantitative information on several geographical levels. As such, they can be used to study the economic effects of international trade on the French economy as a whole, on the economy of a single region, of a port town as well as on the economic behaviors of individual agents, e.g. a merchant or a community of merchants from a single town/region. They can also be used to get a more accurate understanding of the interplay that existed between these different geographical levels.
The volume and dispersion of primary sources makes the process of collecting and putting them into a usable form a time-consuming and costly one. The team includes therefore includes social scientists with consolidated experience in the construction and management of large databases (notably MARPROF, NAVIGOCORPUS, RICardo and SoundToll Registers Online). They will bring their expertise to cross-test our dataset with other types of information on trade (shipping and merchants accounts). The collaboration of researchers who are currently working on similar set of foreign trade statistics for important economic partners of France – Great-Britain and the Austrian Netherlands – will allow both crosschecking and building comparative studies.
The result database will include the bilateral value (with 20-30 different partners) of trade flows at the national level from 1716 to 1821, a merchandise (600-1000 different goods) and partner breakdown from at least 1750 onward, unit values and quantities from 1771 to 1792 and regional trade data. The project will transfer this database in the public domain and make it easily useable by the research community.
The collected data can partly substitute for the lack of domestic macroeconomic series. We will use them to improve dramatically our knowledge of the French economy and our understanding of the economic mechanisms it was subjected to, both at the national and regional level. Two main avenues of research will be privileged. First, we will investigate the evolution of French specialization, both across French regions and in comparison to other countries. How was it linked to the contrasted economic development of France and Britain? What does it tell us on the determinants of international trade? Second, we will study the effects of policy choices on the French economy: France went through several wars and politic upheavals. It also went through stark changes in its commercial policies: from mercantilism to mitigated free trade in the 1760s with its colonial empire, to a number of free-trade treaties in the 1780s, followed by the closing up of the economy under the Empire. What were the effects of these policy choices?

This project has been financed by the ANR in 2013 over the period 2014-2017.

For more details on our tasks, etc. please explore the menu of this research blog.