Tous les articles par Guillaume Daudin

Publication: comparing STRO and TOFLIT18

Loïc Charles and Guillaume Daudin «Cross-checking STRO with the French Balance du Commerce data», in Jan Willem Veluwenkamp & Werner Scheltjens (Ed.), Early Modern Shipping and Trade : Novel Approaches Using Sound Toll Registers Online (pp. 133-150). Boston & Leiden: Brill (2018)


 This chapter looks at trade between France and Northern Europe as reported by the Sound Toll Register Database  and the French Balance of Trade  statistics from 1750 to 1789.

Although these two sets of data are quite different, we developed a common methodology to analyse comparatively both datasets in order to better understand the nature of the information they contain and to assess how to use them.

Our results are: the comparison of the flows registered in physical quantities and in the  number of cargoes by the STRO and the French data registered in values is disappointing. Conversely, the Sound Toll Registers tax indicator is a reasonable proxy for the French data; Norway accounts for a significant part of French imports from Denmark, but it is not the case for French exports to the same country; French exports to each of the Baltic countries share a similar structure and are dominated by wine and colonial goods, there is a strong differentiation of French imports as Swedish exports are made almost exclusively of iron and its derivatives and Danish exports are made mostly of wood and to a lesser extent of European foodstuff, while Russian exports are dominated by primary goods.

    Keywords : 

Trade Statistics ; Sound ; France ; Eighteenth Century ; Baltic Trade ; Scandinavia ; Russia




Published information on the Balance du Commerce source

«France, c. 1716- c.1821» with Loïc Charles, Revue de l’OFCE: Observations et diagnostics économiques, July, n°140, p. 237-248, 2015 

«La collecte du chiffre au xviiie siècle: Le Bureau de la Balance du Commerce et la production de données sur le commerce extérieur de la France», with Loïc Charles,  Revue d’Histoire Moderne et Contemporaine, vol. 58, n°1, p. 128-155, 2011 

The way we treat quantity units (as of February 26th 2018)

The retranscribed variable is “quantity_unit” (1,538 different values).

 Orthographic Normalization

The file “Units_Normalisation_Orthographique.dta” establishes a correspondance between the variable “quantity_unit” and the variable “quantity_unit_ortho” (701 values). 210,000 observations have “livres” in “quantity_unit_ortho” and 160,000 have “unité manquante” (out of 510,000).

Simplification and single-key conversion

The file “Units_Normalisation_Métrique1” establishes a correspondance between the variable “quantity_unit_ortho” and either
– 1. the variables “quantity_unit_ajustees” (simplifying the “quantity_unit_ortho”), “u_conv” (a metric unit of quantity) and “q_conv” (the number of u_conv in “quantity_unit_ortho”). e.g. “quantity_unit_orth” “douzaine de paires” has “douzaine de paires” as “quantity_unit_ajustees”, “pièce” as u_conv and “24” as “q_conv”.
– 2. a variable “needs_more_details” which indicate that we cannot know the metric equivalent without using more variables.

Simplification and Multi-key conversion

The file “Units_Normalisation_Métrique2” establishes a correspondance between :
exportsimports + pays_grouping + direction + marchandises_simplification + quantity_unit_ortho and “quantity_unit_ajustees” (simplifying the “quantity_unit_ortho”), “u_conv” (a metric unit of quantity) and “q_conv” (the number of u_conv in “quantity_unit_ortho”).

Pierre Hollegien, Reinterpreting The Colonial Trade: France, Sugar and Dutch Disease

Pierre Hollegien was an intern in the TOFLIT project from in 2015. He then produced some very interesting work on drug trade.

He then went and did a MSc in the London School of Economics where he produced a research paper on “Reinterpreting The Colonial Trade: France, Sugar and Dutch Disease”.

Here it is:

Hollegien – EH499-Candidate_number_15129

December 19th 2017 meeting

Attending members : Loïc Charles, Béatrice Dedinger, Guillaume Daudin, Paul Girard, Guillaume Plique, Elisa Tirindelli

# Budget
SciencesPo has an extra 800 € that will be used to hire and additional day from Alexis Jacomy.
We discuss the transfer of money from INED to SciencesPo.

# Aggregation python script
There is now a documentation a documentation on github, but it needs to be completed (

# Datascape
We discuss how the datascape has advanced. Alexis will still work on it and Guillaume and Loïc need to add a bit of documentation / texts.
We will continue this work in January 2018.

# Ricardo
We discuss the new version of Ricardo

That was the last official TOFLIT18 meeting ! Thank you to all who contributed (and will continue contributing…)

November 14th 2017 meeting


Merci à Paul Chevret d’avoir fait la première version !

Attending members:
Loïc Charles, Paul Chevret, Béatrice Dedinger, Guillaume Daudin, Pierre Gervais, Paul Girard.

#About the datascape
Pierre Gervais notices that the glossary is full of mistakes and promises to go and correct some of them at some point in the future.

#About the advancement of the project & Matlo
– We review Matlo’s work. They have done all the views, except classification.
– Many contents and classifications are still required before uploading the datascape.
– They still have 1/2 day work to do, but we will have to go further. We will use for that the 3,600 € left at SciencesPo before the end of the year, probably by hiring directly Alexis (the senior developer).
– Paul Girard: the beta version will open when the datascape is ready.

#Concerning the layout of datascape
– We spend a lot of time discussing the datascape and the final tweaks.
– The general layout is fixed and we do not discuss it.
– Many comments and critical remarks have been made on the subject and the list of issues in Github is growing.

– The “source” and “source_type” files have been merged. The files have been edited and corrected to be easier to use.
– The script generating the database have been corrected.
– Chili and Peru have been aded to the database.
– Ricardo will be presented at Boston by Béatrice

#Next (and last ?) meeting
December 19th 2017.
Remembre to register for the dinner on the same day by sending a mail to me. We will go to «La Boussole».

Paul Chevret

We welcome Paul Chevret, who will probably be the last intern of the project.

“Currently achieving my third year in international economics in Dauphine, I have some available time that I have decided to  involve myself in a project that could give me some personal satisfaction and  enhance my curriculum.
The Toflit18 project is compatible and coherent with my studies, but it also compatible with my interest for history and economics.
I hope this will allow me to discover the field of academic research and work alongside  experienced people.  I’m happy and excited to discover what will happen during these months at the laboratory.

He will work two days a week from November 1st till the end of December. He will be in charge of the transcription of data under the supervision of  Guillaume Daudin and Loïc Charles. He will also be solicited by other researchers to complete various tasks (like the meeting reports).

CV-10.09.17 Paul CHEVRET